The Nile River is considered as the longest river in the world measuring 4160 miles long. The so-called “Father of African rivers” rises south of flows northward from its principal source (Lake Victoria, East-Central Africa) through North-Eastern Africa to drain into the Mediterranean Sea. Its remotest source is in Burundi (River Luvironza). The Nile River drains an area estimated at 1,293,000 square miles (3,349,000 square kilometres).
Its basin includes parts of Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda,Congo (Kinshasa), Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopa, most of the Sudan and the cultivated part of Egypt.
The Nile River is a home of about 300 million people and a source of food, fish, energy and transportation.
It nourishes livelihood, an array of ecosystems and a rich diversity of cultures spreading over an area of 3 million square kilometres The nilometer is a well set next to the Nile River. The device served as a way to measure water levels thanks to some
marked intervals, thus allowing the keeping of comparative historic records. These also helped to predict the beginning and the volume of the coming inundation (based on the beginning of the Egyptian year).
The quality of the year’s flood was used to determine the levels of tax to be paid, in kind, by the peasantry to their rulers. The better the year’s flood was, the higher the tax was to anticipate the coming crops. Today, the best example of nilo meters can be seen on the Philae and Elephantine islands.